That's a bit misleading. What Erdős called "TheBook" doesn't exist, except maybe in the mind of the SupremeFascist (it consists of the single best proof for every theorem). The proofs in "ProofsFromTheBook?" are good candidates for The Book, but aren't known to be in it (maybe there are even better proofs of those theorems). And "... that Erdős thought of" might give the impression that Erdős thought of the proofs in that book, which he mostly didn't. It's a nice book, though :-).
His last name is approximately pronounced air-dish.
The correct spelling of his name requires u0151 'ő', that is, o with two acute accents, a glyph which, to my knowledge, occurs only in Hungarian.
This is not the same as an o with umlaut 'ö'. Therefore, rendering his surname as 'Erdoes' is wrong, even though spelling 'ö' as 'oe' in the absence of umlauts is correct (see KurtGoedel for instance).
You can see the letter, and all of its friends in the ISO 8859-2 Character Set:
A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems - this is usually attributed to Erdős but Hungarians attribute it to Alfred Renyi.
He often made referrences to "the Supreme Facist", or the SF---God or someone like Him.