Universal Programming Language

A UniversalProgrammingLanguage (my definition) is one which provides excellent support (and is an appropriate choice) for all types of computer programs - systems programming (device drivers, OS kernels, VirtualMachines), numeric computation, data processing, end-user application code, business logic, RealTime, MissionCritical, secure programming, etc. and so forth. The KeyLanguageFeatures goes into a great deal of depth here.

"Excellent", for purposes of this discussion, means that "the language is a highly suitable choice for the application area; and one which would merit consideration for production use in a project with limited schedule and budget". TuringCompleteness doesn't imply excellence; nor does the existence of a single prototype somewhere. Actual demonstrated experience in an application area does qualify; as does demonstrable similarity to another language with such experience. (I say this to make sure I don't exclude all but the MainstreamLanguages - however, I do intend to exclude claims like "some guy doing his thesis at MIT implemented an OS kernel in Java; hence Java is a systems programming language" from the discussion. The preceding example is fictitious).

Unfortunately, many of the KeyLanguageFeatures needed for some applications are inappropriate and counter-productive for others. For example, the features used for low-level bit-frobbing needed for systems programming can be easily used to undermine any high-level abstractions that languages typically provide for applications at the other end of the spectrum. Languages without these features are generally preferred by high-level applications programmers, but then these languages become completely unsuitable for the low-level stuff.

At this point, it is claimed that there is no UniversalProgrammingLanguage.

Many claim that there can never be.

The current approach, widely used, is to AlternateHardAndSoftLayers - have a high-level language take care of the high-level stuff, have a systems language like CeeLanguage do the bit-twiddling. The calling interface between the two languages generally exposes a subset of the called language (typically the low-level language; calls the other direction - having C code call Java code, for example - is often a questionable practice). In other words, the boundary between the two domains is a firewall between the high-level and low-level stuff; just because a Java app can call C functions doesn't give the Java code access to PointerArithmetic. (Of course, one could write a C library designed to export C features to Java and then call that, but that's cheating).

Some languages do strive to universality. CeePlusPlus is a higher-level extension to C, and it has quite a bit of high-level features (both OO and functional). However, it still has the C programming model, with pointers and such - and while the StandardTemplateLibrary allows most instances of PointerArithmetic to be excised from application code - the capability is still there. You still have to use pointers (or references) in any non-trivial C++ program. Plus, one major area of concern not dealt with by C++ is memory management - the lack of GarbageCollection makes C++ a difficult choice for many applications.

Another approach used is to have safe/unsafe subsets. ModulaThree, I believe, does this - certain features are declared unsafe, and can only be used from modules/functions also declared unsafe. This allows an enterprise to restrict use of the unsafe features - a rule such as "application programmers shall use the safe subset only" can be more readily enforced; accidental use of unsafe features is caught by the compiler. ModulaThree is a rather old language, and is missing quite a few useful things. (Maybe it's time for ModulaFour??) CsharpLanguage provides a mechanism for performing unsafe low-level pointer manipulation.

A third idea, often discussed in the literature, is to have a family of languages, perhaps with a common subset, or with one language a superset of the other(s), designed for specific application areas. The languages in the family would share things like syntax and style; and a great many features would have same semantics. The interface(s) between different subsystems would be implemented with the "safe" subset. The toolsets for the languages in the family could be integrated, providing a seamless development environment while allowing different areas of concern to have only what they need. Probably the best example of this in widespread use are C (as the low-level language) and your choice of CeePlusPlus or ObjectiveCee as the high-level language (C++ and ObjC cannot be intermixed, but both are mostly supersets of C). CeePlusPlus does leave much to be desired; ObjectiveCee has other issues. Other languages with similar syntax (JavaLanguage, CsharpLanguage) provide ways to call C; but those languages both are sufficiently different semantics about them that it would be a great stretch to call them members of the C "family".

Hypothesis: At some point, 'UniversalProgrammingLanguage' will likely be a high-level language that gets so high-level it overflows and becomes low-level again. Well... that's an interesting way to say it, but what I really mean is a basis in DeclarativeMetaprogramming: This is essentially late binding of implementation, or as late as possible while still keeping the strategy selection static. Even later binding of implementation strategy is possible if you delay until runtime. AbstractFactory with PluginArchitecture and PolicyInjection is one such technique I have applied to good effect.

This was essentially the goal of the fifth-generation language projects of the 90s, particularly in Japan. Though general-purpose intent-oriented or requirements-oriented programming is probably inevitable, currently the process(es) for translating general and arbitrary sets of goals and constraints into efficient and usable executable code is(are) still largely unknown.

There is considerably more short-term promise in small, well-defined specialist domains. It is from experience with these that generality will grow.

In some respects, the closest semi-general examples of this concept in popular use are relational DBMSes, the development of which has taught us much about declarative language design (both good and bad), composition and optimisation based on sound theoretical (in the mathematical sense) frameworks, dynamic code generation, achieving durability and consistency, implementation of (relatively) seamless distributed systems, and so on.

I suspect it will eventually be achieved on a broad scale. But the 90s was before its time, a bit like the 70s was before ActorsModel's time. I suspect a learning ProofOptimizer that can leverage millions of compiles - and bits and pieces of programmer advice - from distributed user-systems, along with massive databases about the lowest level details of CPU and hardware, will be necessary to achieve DeclarativeMetaprogramming in sense general enough to support time and space bounds and such. Essentially, one is building an ExpertSystems programmer. Look forward to this becoming mainstream circa 2035. Maybe.

But weaker or more specialized forms will exist before then. A number of projects, for example, have already built optimizing cross-compilers using this approach. It happens to be one of the simpler and less painful and more extensible (easy to add new optimizations and architectures) ways to implement an optimizing cross-compiler. I plan on adapting it in the future for compiling my own language, though it won't much help with the bit-banging and time/space requirements.
I find the above claim that there can be no Universal Programming Language amusing, because I could think of two.

First is CommonLisp, a language that starts high-level, but can reach down as low as you would like to go, primarily with the help of macros. While I am not aware of any operating system that uses CommonLisp as the implementation language, there have certainly been operating systems written entirely in some form of LispLanguage, and it's hard to imagine it being unnatural to write an OS using CommonLisp, except for the fact that operating systems these days are so complicated, that we might as well stick with what we got.

Second is ForthLanguage, which starts out low-level, but can quickly grow as high-level as you would like to take it. While you don't get garbage collection with this one, it can give you a REPL on devices with surprisingly small memory footprints, say, for example, two kilobytes of RAM!

Because these languages transcend what we've come to expect from a computer language, I've come to call them "Transcendental"; there may be others that will fit the description, too. HaskellLanguage, in particular, uses monads to provide surprisingly flexible syntax, and can compile to fast code; SmallTalk *might* not qualify because of the fact that it's difficult to see how it can compile to fast code, but it is nonetheless likely a candidate; unfortunately, I'm not aware enough with PrologLanguage to know how it would compare on this scale. (Although HaskellLanguage is the language that gave me the idea of "Transcendental" languages, I'm not yet familiar enough with it, or even these other languages, to know how transcendental they can be in practice.)

See also: GeneralPurposeProgrammingLanguage, DeclarativeMetaprogramming, KeyLanguageFeature, InstantLanguageForm

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